By Siddharth Kara, Special to CNN
Editor’s Note: Trafficking expert Siddharth Kara is a Harvard fellow and author of the award-winning book, "Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery." For more than 15 years, he has traveled around the world to research modern-day slavery, interviewing thousands of former and current slaves. Kara also advises the United Nations and governments on anti-slavery research and policy.
Edo State, Nigeria - The first victim of human trafficking I met from Nigeria was in a shelter in north Italy in 2004. Her name was Gift. Since that time, I’ve interviewed 27 Nigerian victims of human trafficking in the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, Italy and even Thailand.
All but one of them were from Edo State, an area east of the city of Lagos.
These women told me some of the most harrowing tales of trafficking I have ever heard. Some trudged through the desert for weeks to the North African coast, where they crossed dangerous waters in rafts to Europe. Others were flown directly from Lagos to Milan, Copenhagen or London. All of them suffered extremes of rape, torture and abuse that are impossible to imagine.
A few aspects of these ordeals immediately caught my attention. Each one of the women was fiercely committed to repaying debts to their madams of up to 50,000 euros. When rescued, they often refused assistance. When asked to testify in trials, some went into fits and trances in the witness box. When deported back to Nigeria, most desperately tried to return to their madams until their debts were repaid.
They went to these lengths because of “juju oaths” they took before leaving Nigeria. The level of control achieved by these oaths was greater than anything I have seen in any other human trafficking context.
Promise's home (Courtesy Siddharth Kara)
It took me six years to gather the necessary contacts to safely explore the juju culture of Edo State. There are death threats against those who attempt to intervene in the juju practice in any way.
A young victim of trafficking I met twice in Copenhagen, named Promise, told me, “The juju priest took my womb from me. If I say anything, I can never get my womb back.”
No outsiders I know have been able to witness an actual juju ritual, but a few brave Nigerian trafficking victims have described the rituals to me in detail.
The priest takes some of the young girls’ pubic hair, nail clippings and menstrual blood, then officiates a ceremony in which she promises to repay her debt, never to escape, never to talk to the police and never to reveal any details of the juju ritual. A container holding the girls’ hair, blood and clippings is sold to the madam who purchases the girl after transport to Europe, thereby transferring spiritual control to her.
Despite the perceived risks, Promise started to speak against her juju priest, and she offered to help me research the issue further.
“My family can help you learn about juju,” Promise told me, “But please tell my sisters not to come here. Both of them have taken the juju oath. Please don’t let them suffer like me.”
With the help of a guide, I navigated the toxic, crumbling and highly violent rural reaches of Nigeria and finally arrived in Promise’s impoverished home village a few hours from Benin City. Her mother, Joy, greeted me with tears streaming down her face.
“Thank you for coming here,” she cried, “Is Promise okay? Is my daughter safe?”
Joy showed me around her hut and explained that she literally boiled tree leaves to feed her family. Everyone was desperate to get out, especially her other two daughters who had recently taken the juju oath.
With tips from Joy’s daughters, I managed to meet a few juju priests. I also met the head priest of the entire Edo State. It was a deeply nerve-wracking experience. Outside of his shrine, the head priest displays dozens of framed pictures of disfigured followers who have broken their oaths, claiming the power of his curses caused their disfigurement.
The head priest’s followers were filled with absolute fear, and that is exactly why Nigerians from this area - like Promise, and perhaps her sisters - are being trafficked by the thousands, generating millions of dollars for their exploiters, who are able to maintain complete control of their victims through the juju oaths – body, mind and soul.
The opinions expressed in this guest blog post are solely those of Siddharth Kara.
The issue of sex slave is unknown to many parts of nigeria. It is an evil peculiar to the sourthern part of nigeria. It is unfair to make sweeping statement that the murky practice coverd the whole federation. Please note that northern nigeria which is culturally different knows nothing about this intercontinental prostitution.
Danmuazu, are you really sure that there are no sex slaves in the northern part of our Country? I think rather than take offence we should ask ourselves what are the factors driving this trade and commit as individuals to fight this scourge
@ Danmuazu, Sadly, this story resembles certain southern Nigeria communities. I suppose you are one of those northerners who believe that stoning women and chopping off poor people's limbs for unproved offenses would make the sad incidents of human trafficking worse. In my opinion, all these are some of the ungodly things that keep Africa down. That some people still believe in "juju" enslavement sadly highlights the level of ignorance of some people.
Danmuazu, I feel very ashamed for you. Have you not been to hotels, motels, and lodges in most parts of northern Nigeria? Go infront of Semshak hotel opposite university of Jos at night. I have seen girls from the north prostituting in London. The % might be less compared to those from the south. Alot of people continue to be in denial and dont want to hear about these practical issues. Just like hard drugs is ravaging the nook and cranies of the country; most used by alot of politicians and kids of the wealthy in Nigeria.
Why then doesn't the government simply execute these "priests" & prove they have no power?
For the same reasons that western governments cannot execute pimps that "enslave" some women in prostitution.
Danmuazu, I am so disappointed that as a Nigerian you can make such inferences exempting the north. which part of the country do you find more children given out in marriages for financial benefits to parents and relatives? where do you have more covered women moving in the night to shady destinations?. The reason why the trade is continuing is because of demand and loose men all over the world demand for illicit sex even in the north that is why it is still lucrative. Aisha I am sorry for the comments and I agree with you.
Danmuazu – as a fellow northerner, i encourage you to refrain from making this a north/south issue. yes, the article specifically identifies a region in nigeria, but that is for the purpose of exploring the "juju oath" phenomenon and its effect on sex slaves from that region. the author does not assume trafficking is a "southern" issue and neither should you. if you want to make such statements, be sure to back them up with concrete evidence otherwise you are merely fueling the flames of ethnic conflict in our country.
Well spoken, Aisha. Thanks.
Very well put...
Aisha: The author seems to identify it as a phenomenon in the south. If it IS happening in the north, that needs to be addressed too.
Again, northern and southern Nigeria have very different ethnic groups and cultures, and their own sets of problems – While 419 computer scams aren't an issue in the north, Islamic fundamentalism is, and vice versa for the south
Well spoken Aisha.
It's just as shameful and disgusting if parts of Nigeria aren't aware of the trafficking. Wake up and do something about this uncivilized atrocity. And yes, I absolutely say that about ALL countries/societies that have this problem.
So, if someone doesn't know something they're "shameful and disgusting?" Talk about blaming the victim. Grow the FV<K up lady...
Yes. You have a role to play as well. Inform your community
Sarah, you should know that the United States is one of the destinations for modern slaves. You should also know that there are thousands of women and men in the USA who are in forced labor...slaves. This is an international problem and every person needs to be aware and to do something. Educate yourself, there are pleanty of web sites for you to learn about human trafficking and how to recognize and report it.
Mike: There are large differences and variations in many regions of Nigeria, let alone the north and the south
The south has to deal with this and 419 computer scams
The north has to deal with Islamic fundamentalism
If you know nothing of this rampant problem, then get your head out of the sand and look around you. To say that sex trafficking doesn't take place in certain parts of a country or certain areas of the world is just ignorance on your part. It exists everywhere and will continue to exist as long as people continue to refuse that it even exists where they live.
This is the barbaric behavior that has kept Africans in bondage, poverty and misery for centuries. Americans taking Africans to America for slavery was bad, but this is worse and it continues to this so-called "modern" day. Education is a wonderfull thing.
most of the africans brought out of Africa as slaves were captured and sold by Africans, this is nothing new, just a return to old habits.
Proper spelling is a wonderful thing.
Anti Prostitution & Human Trafficing laws make thin kind of thing possible. On one side we have women & girls so desperate to leave abject poverty & Laws in industrial nations that outlaw any work for those without an education & no job skills. By ridding the world of the black Market Sex trade & making it a legal regulated trade then women & girls can freely & openly travel to sell sex.
You are spouting nonsense. Prostitution is a destructive practice in every way. It is destructive toward the female psyche and body. It is destructive toward the male psyche and body. It is destructive toward the family. Legalizing it would only make it easier for people to engage in this societal ill.
If a woman needs or wants to work, then she can. There are lots and lots of opportunities in this world for free people. The trouble for some is that they live in places ruled by opressive, abusive dictators. The solution is for them to work toward forming better governments, as many are doing RIGHT NOW in places such as Tunisia. I can't fathom why you think that PROSTITUTION is the solution.
Laws do not cause crimes. Criminals do.
First, I will start at the end of your post. "Laws do not cause crime, criminals do." That is blatantly false. Laws define a crime, thus cause such activities to be a crime. Criminals commit crime, they do not "cause" it.
The only reason prostitution is destructive currently is because it is illegitimate. It in itself is not destructive in any form. It is not "destructive" to the body when legitimate, as there would be regulations preventing destructive possibilities (specifically STDs). In regulated areas (Nevada) the STD rate among prostitutes is VERY low, and it is in fact much safer to have sex with and as a prostitute than a with a new partner. If you are talking s3xu@al practices that may be dangerous, that is purely up to the woman to decide, not the prostitution of it. It would be very hard to force a legit prostitute into doing dangerous s3xu@l activities if she chooses not to do so, even as the employeer. Moreover, a legitimate prostitute can be educated to the dangers of certain aspects so s3x, which is something the illegal prostitute can't. As for the psyche, I stand by that this is very much because they are not legitimate, and it is tied specifically into that most prostitutes don't have the protection from the government, and that many have their freedom to choose taken away from them. This is close to impossible with a legitimate performer.
"It is destructive toward """the family""" Wut? First off, it is only destructive to a family if the person is being dishonest about it (wife prostituting without the husbands permission, even though she made an obligation to him), or if the person has no support from the family to begin with (the daughter who chooses prostitution as a job). Secondly, if you are talking about the "idea" of a family, I resent that completely. That is YOUR conception of the idea of a family. I agree that families are center to human life and our culture, but limiting the idea of a family unit is FAR FAR FAR more destructive to society and the individuals in it than legitimate prostitution can ever be.
I'd like to end on the one point you got correct, most problems are because of corrupt or ineffective government. If they had a government of integrity, especially one towards these issues, then this problem could be stymied. But, as you've probably figured out, I don't even think our government, or us as a people, have reached that level yet.
John Smith is yet another male who thinks making these things legal will allow him to feel less creepy and disgusting about fulfilling his sexual fantasies. So transparent. So pathetic.
Cason, You're right: the damage to a woman's psyche is simply because prostitution/sex trafficking isn't legal. It has nothing to do with the fact that she uses her vagina, breasts, etc., to earn a living. The small minds like you who like women like this should start using your penises to make a living. Good luck with that.
Cason: "Wife prostituting without the husband's permission"? What planet and era are you from? Once again, I feel very fortunate for my brains and my education, two things that allow me to avoid contact with neanderthals like you.
Cason-that sounds like a phenominal load of B.S. The cause of crime is the person who committs the act, did the obgyn leave part of your brain-stem in the womb when you were born...
John what are you sayin the women and girls are nothing or what we girls are where you came from if not for us you might not be alive so if i was you, you need to stop taking us girls as trash pls
Cason, this is your opinion as you said Etta was wrong. Who said you are right? You have lost your head completely and values are thrown out the window. Prostitution is wrong and it shows the degeneration of both the man and woman involved including you.
1. Yes prostitution is destructive because our bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost (ops you know nothing of that) so we should not mess it up.
2. If there was no crime there would not have been a need to put laws in place to check them (Of course it works vice vesa for you)
3. A prostitute is a product of b
1. Yes prostitution is destructive because our bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost (ops you know nothing of that) so we should not mess it up.
2. If there was no crime there would not have been a need to put laws in place to check them (Of course it works vice vesa for you)
3. A prostitute is a product of bad family values, bad governance, poverty and the elimination of economic options otherwise why else will a lady want to be slept with by different men without the show of affection? (you would know better right)
I know that life is really tough for even some parents who allow their children prostitute. We make certain comments because we are totally oblivious of the pains and suffering of people and the effects of what poverty can cause psychologically. Wake up and smell the coffee men.
yes the capturing, enslaving and selling/trading BY africans of their brothers and sisters to MANY parts of the world is shameful and it is STILL going on, america in no way started the slave trade and not only loooong since ended it but has worked to integrate the former slave population and now less than 150 years later our president is 1/2 african and his wife an ancestor of one of those slaves, america is in no way perfect but blaming the slave trade on america is factually/historically simply wrong, maybe it's time for africa to stop blaming and start fixing
I agree, lance corporal. Perhaps when pathetic and damaging statements like "Most Nigerians don't know sex trafficking exists in Nigeria" cease, then Nigeria and other African nations can accept no blame. But until then . . .
America didn't start slave trade. it was started by Europeans mainly Britain, France and Portugal.
Sarah – grow up and stop acting liek a know-it-all all wise American. You have no idea what nigerians know or don't know based on one CNN article, or 12, get a freakin' life and stop sitting in judgement on a people in a country you would never visit unless you got to stay in a 5-star hotel.
Let me ask you this question, what ahve you done to stop prostitution and the sexual exploitation of women in your own city? Nothing? That's what I thought. Go write a check to NPR and shut up.
Actually she is a decendant of slaves, but I agree with the rest of your comment :-)
Are you current at all? Who says modern day slavery is "only" an African problem. What about the man in the United States who enslaved his daughter and bore children by her for so many years? What will you call that? Safe keeping? The problem is world wide. People selling people for money. The subject matter is the money and with social consciousness flying out people just want money. Kindly google trafficking in the U.S and feed yourself some knowledge.
You are probably right. The mnmeot I'd clicked Post Comment I've realized that when drawing objects on top of a shadow would cause serious problems.Anyway thank you for your response and keep up the good work I hope that some day you will be able to write improved version of your sample, maybe transforming it into tutorial. It seems like quite a lot of people could benefit from that.
Border Patrol Agent shoots Douglas,AZ 19 year old us citizen that had no weapons and no one is talking about it, douglas police and border patrol they are trying to hide what they did , the border patrol agent shoot him 3 times in the head , when he was running away from him.
And what does have to do with sex traffickers from Nigeria, herr putz...
I tire oh......
Sex slavery is not only tragic but also a bondage too hard for one to break from.But what about sex pests, paedophiles, cradle snatchers both in straight and gay?How do we teach the impoverished how to defend themselves from such predators?How do we curb these vices?This is a cruel world.
Not by creating laws that only HELP these ba$tards My answer is a Brothel that provides the needs of the women & girls. They would be REQUIRED to get 8-9 hrs sleep, Attending school would be MANDATORY. 50% goes to the Brothel to buy books, Food, Clothing, Medical Care Etc. of the other 50% the "Pimp" would receive 5% & the girl 45% of this 20% is put into savings. Only these type of Brothels would end this inhumane practice as well as the sex slavery it promotes.
See my post above. Helping women and girls to sell their bodies is not a solution to anything. It is a vice that will only hurt them. Methinks you may just be desparate for lovin.
Etta is right. John Smith will look for any way to rationalize his perverted fantasy cravings. Again, very transparent and so pathetic and damaging. So, John (pun intended), if the "girls" at your "legal brothel" go to school with real books and get a good night's sleep, then you would feel better about desiring sex with "girls"? Your gene pool needs some industrial strength chlorine; please don't breed, John.
Women AND GIRLS? A: If prostitution were legal it should not include children. B: If prostitution were legal, defining how much of the money should be transferred to the prostitute and how much dedicated to her eductaion, health and welfare is ridiculous. It would be her money to save or not as she sees fit. C: If prostitution were legal, pimps would be out of jobs. They could rent a "booth" like a hairdresser and pay some muscle to keep order in the house. He would be low man on the totem pole just like the school kid who sweeps up the hair at a salon. But the fact that you invision brothels that offer girls is quite disturbing.
Easy! Make flayers and distribute in your local community
Human trafficking is a very serious issue.
I found this very impressive video on the topic. Shocking facts and stories and something that has to stop!
Haba mike, have u ever heard an Amina, Zainab, Fatima or any such name deported from Italy to any of the northern states? Lets call a spade a spade. We have prostitudes in d north as well, but not the intercontinental type that goes outside d country and give us bad name.
Really? Is it because the Eastern prostitution is silent? They have their destinations too o, Saudi Arabia harems where small girls are take to by hajias. Na wa for you o. It does exist but you simply don't have facts. Again their destination is the east and you know what will happen if it is known. Should I type it?
I see you have seen the whole register of "intercontinental sex slaves". please address the issue at hand and stop displaying your level of ignorance on the global stage.
Thank you very much. No more comments Sir
This is nothing different than the slavery of the 18th century. Rivals and those who were deemed as "weak" in the eyes of village elders were sold out to the Dutch slave traders, then shipped to Europe and America. It's sad, but it is the same medieval nonsense that keeps the Middle East in its constant state of war over imaginary friends in the sky. It's sad, really, on many different levels.
I am from Edo State, and I can tell you that what Mr. Kara saying is true. Many girls from villages go to Europe because of poverty, but they are taken to the juju priest first. They are very powerful and no one can speak against them. As long as the girls believe in the powers, they will do anything they are told.
I like what John Smith said. Let the bullet do the talking if its true that these powerful juju priests are invicible. Let the Govt round them up and sink bullet holes in them since they have destroyed these slaves or sex workers
No. govt should first and foremost, remove all the Obas, Emirs, Obis, Amayeanabos and chiefs...the so called custodians of culture and replace them with mayors occupying elective posts.
Why? They go the same priest for their political powers too now, you no know?
like an african girl needs a womb,,, methinks if you have to boil tree leaves to feed a family,, a womb aint a good thing to have,,no offense to any1, if you cannot feed yourself, how in the hell do you expect to feed five other people,, btw, spellin freak,, u understood it,, this is not english grammar couse # 400
While Graybo is right, he is also incredibly stupid.
Ha ha ha ha ha
I can't believe someone actually had the gaul to suggest a new type of brothel. Sick bastard! How about ENDING THEM NOW! These stories are horrendous and my heart goes out to every single soul trapped in this madness. One can only wish that more children and women will eascape this hell.
what they need is mass contraceptives and forced vasectomies for many in most of Africa, Nigeria has a very high birthrate and educating women and girls is the first step to stopping human trafficking this will also lower the population. Educated women have less children. There are too many sub Saharan Africans their population needs to seriously come down.
John Smith – I don’t think Kara supports abolishing prostitution, he is anti slavery and trafficking of unwilling women and girls. There are ‘humane’ brothels in the world and call girl services which allow willing sex workers to put themselves through university. I think Kara’s point is that, from an economic point of view, trafficking girls from poor areas in the world to relatively wealthier ones, is more profitable for the criminals. And as long as those profits are there to be had, they will continue to do business. Protecting at-risk populations through awareness programs and promoting schooling of girls, and increasing the costs of trafficking (implementing laws, increasing fines) are the only ways to eliminate this disgusting global curse. Reduce supply, increase costs, decrease profits and these animals will move into more profitable businesses – like drugs or guns!
Dal Bhat: How about just stop viewing women as objects, whether legally or illegally? Would that help? What a concept.
Hi Sarah. What did I write that makes you think I view women as objects? These criminals view girls as commodities. In order to stop crime, surely one needs to understand, just a little, the way the criminal thinks.
Fair enough. You're right: sex trafficking results from MUCH more than "sexism" . . . sometimes, however, I tend to focus on the sexism component, but that is only a part of the entire story, I know . . . but I wonder if it's the basest part of the story? I liked your last comment about drugs and guns, and perhaps that's what made me think of the reality that all things trafficked, including women, are indeed objects.
In your reply above, you listed two possible ways that prostitution may be destructive to the family. Either the wife or the daughter go into prostitution without the consent of the husband/father. How 'bout this one: The husband spends family money, family time, and family affection on a prostitute. I realize you may have a different "view" of family, but if your view of family doesn't involve a commited father and husband, then your view is wrong. Hands down.
Etta, I don't think Cason exits in reality he needs to check himself.
People are very easy to be put under a spell. Western people are indoctrinated that immorality is something to boast about. Everyone needs Christian education to be freed from demonic influences, beliefs and practices.
I would like to state that these girls knew very very well what they where getting themselves into. They cannot claim ignorance. The desperation to escape the grips of poverty drove them into the worse grip of sexual slavery. It should be noted that these oaths are real and the repercusions are very very real too. It would take only God to free these ladies from the effects of the oaths. The key to ending sex slavery is to eliminate its root i.e poverty.
You're an i d i o t. Poverty will always exist, you can reduce it in soem araes, but it will always be with us. Further, whores will always exist because people will always want to pay for sex regardless of how the economy is doing. If you have never experienced poverty in a thrid world nation, then your pcomments come off as just another fat american talking out their butt
Many of these girls probably knew they would be prostitutes, but I doubt they expected to "suffer extremes of rape, torture and abuse that are impossible to imagine". They are young and naive. They probably didn't even know that people are capable of that much cruelty.
Yes, the poverty is a huge problem. Once again, caused by abusive government.
Another shining example of the good works of religion.
The abuse committed against human beings by other human beings – in all parts of the world is difficult to believe. I know it exists but I don't personally know people who live this way or treat others with such violence and inhumanity. What's sad here in America is a rising culture of rage and vitriol and what it stirs up....all while claiming aligence to 'God" and decency. Their mixed messages encourage violence and abuse so although we may not appear as extreme as Nigeria in this story – we are guilty as well – of very bad, very lacking-in-humanity behavior.
WJNKNIGHT STOP BE MEAN TO CASON WATDONE YOU MEAN THAT HE LEFT HALF OF THE BRAIN-STEM IN HIS MOTHERS WOMB and cason am not helping you out i just felt that, that was too much of an insult
Accept a victim of sex trafficking in your life
I watched a video on human trafficking that made such a big impression on me that I want to share it with you. You can find the link here!
Easy! Make flayers and distribute in your local area
The ONLY WAY this sex slavery can stop or decrease in any way is to legalize it. Yes, you read right, leaglize it. I mean, think about. The only rerason why sex slavery is a huge issue is because it is illegal. Morality aside, here are the benefits of legalizing it:
– Girls will be prepared and informed of what they are getting themselves into
– Pimps/Boss authority over clients diminshes
– Prostitutes will have rights. Yes they will have it
– Sex related crimes will decrease
– Government regulation
I know it sounds cray but if the govt can legalize sex work and get invovled, I guarantee have of this sex slavery problems will disappear.
Everyone here are just talking like they are making scripts for a movie called "a perfect world"...staying aloaf of the real horror the the chara cters had, have and will face...the victims(prostitutes)have been conditioned and reconditioned to take the option of prostitution as the the only way out....forget the juju...they know how powerful it is, they believe in the power that is why they take these oaths in the first place...every african knows juju aint a joke!...but if these girls were ready to damn the consequenses then we should be askin ourselfs what could be that bad that a lady would put her soul in jepoardy,go through rape, abuse and give up their freedom willingly to excape?...even if we say poverty...what level of poverty?...and for everyones info!?!...there's no solution to human trafficing!...legalize or don't legalize it,kill the juju priests or don't kill the juju priests it don't matter...bcos it takes two to tango...there will always be despirate ppl and there will always be ppl who cash on that despiration...
Its a touching story i must say but you will be surprised that its like a club here in Edo state as parents scramble for it.
Good clip and good reminder that slavery is alive and well – in so many forms. However; making such a general statement like Nigerians are so poor, they will do anything to get out makes Mr. Kara seem ignorant. I amsure he is well aware that not all Nigerians live in abject poverty and that they are plenty who are perfectly comfortable living and thriving in their home country. He should have been very clear that he was speaking specifically about the people he interviewed and the 'slaves' he encountered.
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